宾语从句时态倒移规律是什么?宾语从句时态是什么?

2022-09-15 11:41:33 来源: 家电网

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一、时态变化(从句的时态向前倒一个时态)

一般现在时——一般过去时

一般过去时——现在完成时

现在进行时——过去进行时

一般将来时——过去将来时

现在完成时——过去完成时

过去完成时——过去完成时

Eg: She said. "I have lost a pen."

→She said she had lost a pen现在完成时——过去完成时

She said. "He will go to see his friend".

→She said he would go to see his friend一般将来时——过去将来时

但要注意在以下几种情况下。在直接引语变为间接引语时,时态一般不变化。

1.直接引语是客观真理。(地球围着太阳公转,月亮影响潮汐)

"The earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth, the teacher told me.

→ The teacher told me the earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth。

2.直接引语是过去进行时,时态不变。如:

Jack said. "John, where were you going when I met you in the street?"→Jack asked John

where he was going when he met him in the street。

3.直接引语中有具体的过去某年、某月、某日作状语,变为间接引语时,时态不变。如:

Xiao Wang said. "I was born on April 2l, 1980。" →Xiao Wang said he was born on April 21,1980。

4.直接引语如果是一般现在时。表示一种反复出现或的动作,变间接引语,时态不变。如:

He said, "I get up at six every morning。" →He said he gets up at six every morning。

5.如果直接引语中的情态动词没有过去时的形式(例:ought to, had better, used to)和已经是过去时的形式时,(例:could, should, would, might)不再变。如:

Peter said. "You had better come here today。" →Peter said I had better go there that day。

二、状语变化

直接引语变间接引语,状语变化有其内在规律,时间状语由"现在"改为"原来"(例:now变为then,yesterday变为 the day before,地点状语,尤其表示方向的,或用指示代词修饰的状语,由"此"改为"彼"(例:this 改为that),

如:He said, "These books are mine." →He said those books were his

this——that

these——those

now——then

today——that day

yesterday——the day before

yesterday morning——the morning before

the day before yesterday——two days before

tomorrow——the next/follow day

tomorrow evening——the next/follow evening

this week——that week

last week——the week before

here——there

come——go

bring——take

三、变句型

1.直接引语如果是陈述句,间接引语应改为由that引导的宾语从句。如:She said, "Our bus will

arrive in five minutes."→She said that their bus would arrive in five minutes.

2.直接引语如果是反意疑问句,选择疑问句或一般疑问句,间接引语应改为由whether或if引导的宾语从句.如:He said, "Can you swim, John?" →He asked John if he could swim.

"You have finished the homework, haven't you?" my mother asked. →My mother asked me whether I had finished the homework.

"Do you go to school by bus or by bike?" he asked.→He asked me if I went to school by busor by bike.

3.直接引语如果是特殊问句,间接引语应该改为由疑问代词或疑问副词引导的宾语从句(宾语从句必须用陈述句语序)。

She asked me, "When do they have their dinner?"→ She asked me when they had their dinner.

Eg: I don't know whom you should depend on.

4.直接引语如果是祈使句,间接引语应改为"tell(ask, order, beg等) sb (not) to do sth."句型。

如:"Don't make any noise," she said to the children. →She told (ordered) the children not tomake any noise. "

Bring me a cup of tea, please," she said.→She asked him to bring her a cup of tea.

5.直接引语如果是以"Let's"开头的祈使句,变为间接引语时,通常用"suggest "

如:He said, "Let's go to the film." →He suggested going to the film.

或: He suggested that they should go to see the film.

主句是一般现在时,从句根据实际情况使用任何时态。主句是一般过去时,从句须用过去时态的某种形式。当宾语从句表示的是一个客观真理或者事实真理时,即使主句是过去时,从句也用一般现在时态。

时态几种情况

1.主句是一般现在时,从句根据实际情况使用任何时态。

例句:The headmaster hopes everything goes well.

2.主句是一般过去时,从句须用过去时态的某种形式。

例句:I knewshe was on a farm, but I didn't know which farm she was on.

3.当宾语从句表示的是一个客观真理或者事实真理时,即使主句是过去时,从句也用一般现在时态。

例句:I learnt that it is much cold on Mars than that on Earth.

编辑:Edt_75

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